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The Importance of the Physical Examination of the Neonate In this article, you will learn about the importance of the Physical examination of the Neonate. You will also learn about physiology and the airway. After this, you will be able to properly diagnose any problems. Physiology of the neonate: How the body works. Physical examination: How do you look at the neonate's physical features? Airway and Hearing:PhysiologyThe physiology of the neonate is highly different from that of an adult. The heart in neonates has a decreased reserve of oxygen and is more prone to hypoxemia. The mechanical characteristics of the neonate heart also differ. The neonatal heart has a less compliant structure, and its cardiac output depends largely on the rate of its beating. The heart also lacks the stroke volume of an adult heart.Physical examinationA physical examination of a neonate is performed to assess the baby's transition from the intrauterine line to the extrauterine line. It also helps to detect any possible disease or congenital malformations. It should be done as soon as possible after birth. This examination is usually limited to checking vital signs and neurological status, and should be done in a manner that causes minimal disruption to the baby. Proper lighting is also important.AirwayAn airway in a newborn is a highly challenging area of an infant's anatomy. In addition to an anteriorly-placed larynx, a newborn has a shorter, narrower epiglottis. As a result, newborns are primarily nose breathers for the first few months, even longer if they are premature. In addition, they may not automatically open their mouths to breathe. In fact, approximately 7 percent of newborns experience respiratory distress.HearingDespite the benefits of early detection, hearing loss in neonates can delay the normal language acquisition process in children. Screening techniques are available to identify newborns at risk and include them in early treatment programmes that start within the first six months of life. This is essential to avoid the sequelae of delayed language acquisition. Various screening protocols have been developed for detecting hearing loss in neonates, which can be implemented in successive phases. Here are some of them:VisionThe visual realm has many requisite components. Development of these components depends on anatomical and neurophysiologic processes. For example, oculomotor coordination is needed for image formation, transmission, and reception. Integration and cognition are also required for spatial relationship appreciation. These requisites must be assessed nonverbally. The interpretation of response parameters, such as eye movements, is required to determine whether a person has the requisites for visual perception.Clamping to umbilical cordDelaying cord clamping after birth is a safe practice for neonates. It reduces the risk of serious prematurity complications, such as anemia and respiratory distress. It may even be beneficial for full-term infants. The delayed cord clamping method allows the infant to breathe while still attached to the placenta. However, the study's limitations are limited, as it only includes a small number of subjects and cannot measure blood pressure continuously. Further studies should be conducted to determine the effectiveness of delayed cord clamping after cesarean section, as well as in neonates with preeclampsia and other preconditions.Transporting a neonateInitially, the primary focus of the evaluation of a neonate is to stabilize the patient with signs of distress. Then, re-assess the ABCs, addressing complications, such as dehydration or respiratory compromise. Gather a complete history of the patient and family, and consider fluids. In addition, consider whether the baby has a heart problem. This information can help the emergency department staff identify the appropriate treatment for the patient.
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